With more than a century-long tradition of aquaculture of both cyprinid and salmonid species, Bosnia and Herzegovina currently has had its aquaculture production influenced largely by the war just past. Plenty of fish farms were badly damaged and destroyed but thanks to the efforts of the government and producers, the aquaculture production sector has undergone essential improvements. Those improvements have been in relation to the technology, production, marketing and management of the number of food fish species.
Organized fishing in Bosnia and Herzegovina goes way back to the late nineteenth century. Fish farms are generally distributed among three principal regions: in the Republic of Srpska in northern Bosnia, where there are 5 cyprinid farms; in the river Vrbas and river Neretva, where there are around 40 concrete salmonid fish farms; and marine aquaculture in 2 cage farms.
Among the most noteworthy salmonid fish species in Bosnia and Herzegovina include the rainbow trout, brown trout and brook trout. Averaging between 1 and 5 pounds, the adult freshwater stream rainbow trout is pretty much smaller than its anadromous lake-dwelling form that goes up to 20 pounds. Habitat, form and subspecies influence coloration. Able to live up to 2 decades, the medium-sized fish that is the brown trout grows up to 20 kilograms and even heavier, and can achieve a length of 100 centimeters in some regions. The brook trout, with its dark green to brown color and unique marbled pattern, has a typical length from 25 to 65 cm and a weight between 0.66 to 6.61 lbs.
The cyprinid species include the common carp, which can grow really large with ample nutrients and space. Common carp have been observed to be able to execute acrobatic leaps out of the water especially when frightened by passing watercraft or threatened by predators. The grass carp, which has chubby, elongated and torpedo-shaped body forms, can grow quite rapidly, with an average length of around 60 to 100 centimeters, to a maximum of 1.4 meters and a weight of about 40 kilograms. Silver carp can grow to a length of 1 meter and a weight of 27 kilograms. With its deep-bodied laterally compressed anatomy, the silver carp is very silvery in color when young, then turns to a greenish color on the back to silver on its belly. When startled, the silver carp can leap out of the water. The wels catfish, a scaleless freshwater fish, has a distinctive flat, broad head and wide mouth and can live for at least 50 years. The fish compensates for its poor sight by having very good hearing, and can have a maximum weight of more than 300 kilograms and maximum length of 5 meters.
Marine fish species include the gilthead seabream, which commonly reaches around 35 centimeters but can get to be 70 centimeters long and around 17 kilograms heavy. The European sea bass, a seasonally migratory species, is a highly regarded table fish that is primarily ocean going and can enter fresh and brackish waters. Otherwise known as the sea dace, this specie is one of the first types of fish to be commercially farmed in Europe. The adult common dentex, which reaches more than 1 meter of length and 20 kilograms of weight, is an active predator that feeds on cephalopods, mollusca and other fish.